Glossary of Safety Terms K - O



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Lanyard: A flexible length of rope, wire or strap used to secure the body, belt or body harness to a deceleration device, lifeline or anchorage.

Liability: Responsibility to another person for negligence causing harm.

Liability insurance: Pays damages to the party that was harmed.

Lien: A right or claim for payment against a worker's compensation case.

Light duty: A temporary change in one's job assignment to accommodate work restrictions.

Litigated claim: A workers' compensation claim in which an attorney is involved, most likely on behalf of the injured worker.

Lockout / blockout (also known as lockout / tagout): Requires that any energy source - electrical, hydraulic, mechanical, compressed air or any other source that might cause unexpected movement - must be disengaged or blocked; electrical sources must be de-energized and locked or positively sealed in the off position. Even a locked-out machine, however, may not be safe if parts of the machine are not blocked to prevent inadvertent movement.

Log of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses (OSHA 300): Used by employers to record and classify work-related injuries and illnesses and note the severity. Employers must record information about every work-related death and about every work-related injury or illness that involves loss of consciousness, restricted work activity or job transfer, days away from work or medical treatment beyond first aid.

Loss: The amount of money that an insurance company pays on a claim.

Loss history: An organization's history of losses (claims). Insurance companies view loss history as an indication of an organization's propensity for losses in the future.

Loss prevention: Activities undertaken to eliminate injuries and illness.

Loss reduction: Activities undertaken to reduce the magnitude or severity of injuries and illnesses.

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Machine guarding: A device or system that prevents objects from getting caught in the moving parts of machinery.

Material handling equipment: Devices like scissor-lifts, pallet jacks and rolling tables designed to assist in the transport of material.

Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS): Literature prepared by a manufacturer that contains information such as a list of hazardous ingredients, safety precautions for handling, spill- or release-response procedures and first aid instructions.

Medical Provider Network (MPN): An entity or group of health care providers set up by an insurer (such as a workers' compensation carrier) or a self-insured employer in order to treat workers injured on the job.

Medical treatment: The treatment reasonably required to cure or relieve the effects of a work-related injury or illness; also known as medical care.

Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA): An agency of the Department of Labor that oversees surface and subsurface mining safety rules and regulations. MSHA conducts inspections, assists with training, and can issue citations, penalties and-cease-and-desist orders in situations where a mine's practices create imminent danger to workers.

Modified work: A change in an employee's working conditions in order to accommodate work restrictions.

MPN: See Medical Provider Network.

MSD: See musculoskeletal Disorder.

MSDS: See Material Safety Data Sheets.

MSHA: See Mine Safety and Health Administration.

Musculoskeletal disorder (MSD): An injury or illness of soft tissues of the fingers, upper arms, shoulders and neck, lower back or legs that is primarily caused or exacerbated by workplace risk factors such as sustained and repeated exertions or awkward postures and manipulations. See also Repetitive Strain Injury (RSI).

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National Fire Protection Association (NFPA): A voluntary membership organization whose aim is to promote and improve fire prevention and protection; publishes 16 national fire codes.

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH): The federal agency responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of work-related disease and injury. NIOSH is part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

NFPA: See National Fire Protection Association.

NIOSH: See National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.

Non-renewal: A decision by an insurance company not to renew a policy.

Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA): An agency of the Department of Labor with the mission to save lives, prevent injuries and protect the health of America's workers.

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OSHA: See Occupational Safety and Health Administration.

Oxygen deficiency: The concentration of oxygen, by volume (19.5 percent), below which atmosphere-supplying respiratory protection must be provided.

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